An entity determines at contract inception whether each performance obligation will be satisfied (that is, control will be transferred) over time or at a specific point in time. The objective in adjusting the transaction price for the time value of money is to reflect an amount for the selling price as though the customer had paid cash for the goods or services when they were transferred. Thus, revenue recognition emphasizes on the timing of recognition of revenue in the statement of profit and loss of an enterprise. 2. An entity might also consider price information from its competitors and adjust that information for the entity's particular costs and margins. Identify the Contract with a customer. The first step for revenue recognition is identifying a contract … Variable consideration may be attributable to the entire contract or only to a specific part. But Rs. For example, when the product price includes a substantial amount for subsequent servicing, that amount is deferred and recognized as revenue when that service is performed. Some of the concepts introduced by Ind AS 115 are completely new like upward adjustment of revenue. It gives clear steps to recognise such revenue – A. Decidewhetheroutcome of a transaction can be estimated reliably. It permits either, ï¿½ Full Retrospective' adoption in which the standard is applied to all of the periods presented; OR. An entity shall present any unconditional rights to consideration separately as a receivable. ï¿½ The entity's performance creates or enhances an asset that has no alternative use to the entity, and the entity has the right to receive payment for work performed to date. ï¿½ Modified Retrospective' adoption. Contract is defined as agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations. An entity recognizes over time revenue that is associated with a performance obligation that is satisfied over time by measuring its progress toward completion of that performance obligation. However, a practical expedient allows an entity to expense as incurred, incremental costs of obtaining a contract if amortization period of asset would be a year or less. This includes arrangements in which the customer transfers control of goods or services (e.g. ï¿½ Cost to fulfill a Contract: An entity should recognize an asset for cost incurred to fulfill a contract if those costs: ï¿½ Relate directly to an existing contract or specific anticipated contract, ï¿½ Generate or enhance resources that will be used in satisfying Performance Obligation in future. IFRS 15 provides the 5 step framework on how and when to … Under AS regime, AS 9, Revenue Recognition states that the amount of revenue shall be measured at the gross inflow of cash, receivables or other considerations received. = Fair Value of consideration – Nominal Amount of consideration, For example, when the product price includes a substantial amount for subsequent servicing. ï¿½ Has not yet established price for the good/ service and the good/ service has not previously been sold on a stand-alone basis. Can A recognize revenue of the goods that are donated? To recognize revenue related to interest, royalties, and dividends, the below-mentioned conditions are to be met: Any contingent liabilities and contingent assets should be disclosed in accordance with IND AS 37. Contract modification arises when the parties approve a change in the scope and/or price of a contract, the accounting for same depends upon whether the modification is deemed to be a separate contract or not. It applies to individual contract with customer. A Ltd provides a commitment to service the equipment for next 3 years with no additional charges. iv) Customer's acceptance The new standard can result in both increases and decreases in previously reported revenues. An additional annual fee of 20,000 is charged for using the club facilities. III. Ind AS-115 notified on 28.03.2018 by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, effective from 01.04.2018. ClearTax is a product by Defmacro Software Pvt. firstname.lastname@example.org, Category Therefore, revenue recognition is considered as one of the crucial aspects examined by the investors, analysts and regulators. Customer pays (or due to pay) consideration an entity has an unconditional right to the consideration before the transfer of goods or, Entity should present the contract as a contract liability, Entity transfers the goods or services before the customer pay (or due to pay), Entity should present the contract as a contract asset, exclude any amount presented as. A customer obtains control of an asset (good or service) when it can direct the use of and obtain substantially all the remaining benefits from it. No, B can recognize only when A sells the goods to the third parties. standards on revenue recognition in India are lacking – such as multiple element arrangements, variable pricing consideration, rights of return, warranties and licensing. Revenue recognition for a rendering of Services – Ind AS 18 requires recognition of revenue using a percentage of completion method only. A donates certain perishable food products to Homeless people, which have reached their best before date but are still fit for human consumption. Professional Course, GST Annual Return However, an entity would allocate a discount to only some of the performance obligations only if it has observable evidence of the obligations to which the entire discount belongs. In this post, we will see in detail the specific differences between the Revenue recognition as per Accounting Standards and Revenue / Turnover as per GST Law. Under Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS), accounting for revenue and customer loyalty programmes would be governed by Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers1.Ind AS 115 provides a five-step model for revenue recognition, and also provides specific guidance for options provided to customers to purchase additional goods and services. Ind AS 115 is effective from annual reporting period beginning on or after April 1, 2018. In situations where control over an asset (goods or services) is transferred at a single point in time, an entity recognizes revenue by evaluating when the customer obtains control of the asset. Efiling Income Tax Returns(ITR) is made easy with ClearTax platform. These promises may be may be explicit, implicit or based on past customary business practices. Use of entity assets yielding Interest, Royalties or Dividends. Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 18, Revenue, prescribes the recognition and measurement principles for revenue arising from certain types of transactions and events. When the inflow of cash (or cash equivalents) is deferred, FV can be less than the nominal amount of cash. Revenue recognition – Differences between GST law and GAAP. A Ltd sells goods with a policy that if a customer is not satisfied with the product, it can be returned and A Ltd would refund the amount paid by the customer for the product. Accounts As accounting transitions to IFRS/ Ind AS, the specific accounting principles for financial instruments are contained in IFRS 9/ Ind AS 109. The entity must update this measurement over time as circumstances change and accounts for these changes as a change in accounting estimate under Ind AS 8Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors'. Under Ind AS 18, a contract for the sale of goods normally gives rise to revenue recognition at the time of delivery. The new standard also replaces guidance notes on real estate revenue recognition. real estate infrastructure, EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction), IT services, etc. Involves subtracting the sum of observable stand-alone selling prices for other goods and services promised under the contract from the total transaction price to arrive at an estimated selling price for a good or service. As a practical expedient, an entity can ignore the impact of the time value of money on a contract if it expects, at contract inception, that the period between the delivery of goods or services and customer payment will be one year or less. Fair Value (FV) is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged or the liability settled between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction. Following are the factors that indicate the high probability of revenue reversal related to the amount of consideration: ï¿½ High susceptibility to factors outside entity's control, ï¿½ Uncertainty exists and it's expected to resolve for a long time. Recognition and Measurement] used to contain the accounting principles for securitisation. Even when real estate entities meet the over-time revenue recognition criterion under Ind AS 115, the POCM as per the GN (withdrawn) and Ind AS 115 are dissimilar in many respects, such as: The GN requires revenue recognition under POCM to commence when atleast 25% of the construction work is completed. This method is permitted only if the entity either: ï¿½ Sells the same good/service to different customers (at or near the same time) for a broad range of amounts; or. An entity would forecast its expected costs to provide goods or services and add an appropriate margin. The entity would update the refund liability each reporting period based on current facts and circumstances. When either party to a contract has performed, en entity shall present the contract in the balance sheet as a contract asset or a contract liability, depending on the relationship between. There is no concept of fair valuation in AS 9. Other Articles by - is income that arises in the course of ordinary activities of an entity and if referred to by the variety of different names including sales, fees, interest, dividends, and royalties. iii) Customer has significant risk and rewards Control includes the ability to prevent other entities from directing the use of and obtaining the benefits from an asset. Revenue is recognized when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and these benefits can be measured reliably. Ind AS 115 requires that variable consideration is allocated entirely to a single performance obligation (or to a distinct good or service that forms part of a performance obligation) if and only if both of the following conditions have been met: o The terms of the variable payment relate specifically to the entity's efforts towards, or outcome from, satisfying that performance obligation (or distinct good or service), o The result of the allocation is consistent with the amount of consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for the promised goods or services, 7. materials, equipment, labour) to facilitate the entity's fulfillment of the contract. Control is considered to be transferred over time if one of the following conditions exists: ï¿½ Customer controls the asset as it is created or enhanced by entity's performance under the contract, ï¿½ A customer receives a benefit from the entity's performance as the entity performs. However, it does not include administrative type tasks that do not result in transfer of good or service to customer. International Accounting Standard (IAS-18)/ Ind AS – 18 (Old AS – 9) Revenue Now, entities will have to adjust the transaction price for the time value of money. In accounting parlance, revenue is considered as a subset of income. Professional Course, India's largest network for finance professionals, Ind AS-115: The New Standard for Revenue Recognition, All You Need to Know About UDIN (Unique Document Identification Number) by Chartered Accountants in Practice, Cancellation of registration under Rule 22 of the CGST Rules aligned with newly inserted sub-rule (2A) of Rule 21A, Equalisation Levy - Most Vital Concept in International Taxation, GST - Due Date Compliance Calendar for January 2021 and Recent Updates on The Portal, Role of Dividend Tax in Achieving the Essence of the Budget, In a manner that depicts the transfer of goods or services to customers, At an amount that reflects the consideration the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services, Expected Value - Sum of probability weighted amounts in range of possible consideration. Major impact would be seen on following sectors: The author is CA-Final Student and may be contacted at Indian Accounting Standard - Ind AS 18: Revenue Revenue is defined as the gross inflow of economic benefits (cash, receivables, other assets) arising from the ordinary operating activities of an enterprise (such as sales of goods, sales of services, interest, royalties, and dividends). Can A recognize the entrance fee as revenue upon receipt? However, this does not imply that entities can ignore past revenue contracts. An entity should recognize the reduction of revenue when (or as) either of the following events occurs: ï¿½ Recognizes revenue for the transfer of related goods or service to the customer, ï¿½ Pays or promises to pay the consideration, 6. Accounting treatment of this transaction would require A Ltd to apply the test of “transfer of significant risks and reward” and recognize the revenue during the point of sale provided future returns can be reliably measured based on past experience. Companies based in India will need to adopt a more detailed process for revenue recognition as the Ind AS 115 removes scope for interpretation in several areas. The Standard is concerned with the recognition of revenue arising in the course of the ordinary activities of the enterprise from the sale of goods the rendering of services Companies will have to necessarily determine if there are multiple distinct promises in a contract or a single performance obligation (PO). The first step for revenue recognition is identifying a contract with customer. A enters into consignment sales agreement with B who is a supplier. Income is the increase in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of inflows or enhancements of assets or decreases in the liabilities that result in an increase in equity, other than contributions from equity participants. In this article we cover the following topics w.r.t IND AS 18 Revenue Recognition: This Standard should be applied in accounting for revenue arising from the following transactions: 3. Ind AS 115 brings a conceptual change in revenue recognition as it prescribes for revenue recognition when customer obtains controls of a good or service, whereas under existing principles of Ind AS, revenue is recognized when there is transfer of risk and rewards. This standard is expected to impact all companies, though the impact could be more pronounced for some depending on their industry sector, existing customer contracting practices and more importantly the accounting policies already adopted. Ind AS 23 Borrowing Costs: 24. Under an effective financing transaction, the fair value of the consideration is determined by discounting all future receipts using an imputed rate of interest. Transfer of Control over a period of Time. Under new standard, an entity is required to capitalize certain costs incurred in obtaining a contract if specified criteria are met. ï¿½ The combined effect of the prevailing interest rate in the market and expected length of time between when the transfer of goods or services and the time when the customer makes the payment. Ind AS-115 provides single comprehensive framework to be used by entities to recognize revenue from their customers and report useful information about nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from a customer. Accounting Standard 9: AS 9 deals with the bases for recognition of revenue in the statement of profit and loss of an enterprise. The imputed rate of interest is the more clearly determinable of either: (a) Prevailing rate for a similar instrument of an issue with a similar credit rating, (b) Rate of interest that discounts the nominal amount of the instrument to the current cash sales price of the goods or services. On the other hand, to understand the commercial effect of series of transactions, recognition criteria can be applied together on two or more transactions at the same time. However, entity may apply it to a portfolio of contracts with similar characteristics if entity reasonably expects reasonably that effects of applying it to portfolio would not differ materially from that if applied to individual contracts. Ind AS 115 prescribes five steps model to account for revenue: Identify the contract(s) with a customer AS-9 includes revenue as per completed service method or percentage completion method but IND AS-18 recognizes revenue as per percentage of completion method. 2,00,000 in March 2004. If the sum of the stand-alone selling prices for the promised goods or services exceeds the contract's total consideration, an entity treats the excess as a discount to be allocated to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. estimating variable consideration and assessing if constrained and allocating to performance obligations), xviii) Reconciliation of the amount of revenue recognized in the statement of profit and loss with the contracted price showing separately each of the adjustments made to the contract price specifying the nature and amount of each such adjustment separately (carve-out). IND AS 115 is in sync with RERA that mandates sales proceeds of under construction projects to be kept in a separate escrow account and not treat it as revenue recognition . An asset is transferred when (or as) the customer obtains control of that asset. significant downward adjustment) when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration subsequently resolves. Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 101 First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards: Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 102 Share-based Payment: Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 103 Business Combinations: Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 104 Insurance Contracts Professional Course, Online Excel Course If the amount of consideration from a customer contract is variable, an entity is required to evaluate whether the cumulative amount of revenue recognized should be constrained. The consideration will then be allocated to multiple POs and revenue recognized when control over those distinct goods or services is transferred. For purpose of Ind AS 115, a contract does not exist if each party has unilateral enforceable right to terminate a wholly unperformed contract without compensating the other party. IND AS 18 Revenue Recognition sets the guidelines as to when to recognize the revenue arising from certain types of transactions and the accounting treatment of the same. A, a club, charges Rs 100,000 as entrance fee. The objective of the constraint is for an entity to recognize revenue only to the extent that it is highly probable that there will not be a significant reversal (i.e. A customer obtains control when it has the ability to direct the … 3. Transaction Price is not adjusted for customer's credit risk, but is adjusted if entity has created a valid expectation that it will enforce its rights for only a portion of contract price. 1,50,000 was settled for payment against the claim of Rs. v) Entity has present right to payment. The Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS), as notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, have been formulated keeping the Indian economic & legal environment in view and with a view to converge with IFRS Standards, as issued by and copyright of which is held by the IFRS Foundation. A Ltd sells equipment to B Ltd for Rs. In addition, they must disclose the amount by which each financial statement line is impacted due to Ind AS 115 application in the current period for the year ended March 2018. If an entity is unable to reasonably measure the fair value of non-cash consideration, it indirectly measures the consideration by referring to the stand-alone selling price of the goods or services promised under the contract. It focuses heavily on what the customer expects from a supplier under a contract. Atransfer' occurs when the customer obtains control of the good or service. 4. A Performance Obligation is a promise in a contract with customer to transfer either, i) A good or service, or a bundle of goods or services, that is distinct OR, ii) A series of distinct goods or services that are substantially the same and have pattern of transfer to the customer. Risks and rewards have been transferred from the seller to the buyer. Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 18 Revenue, prescribes principles for recognition and measurement of revenue. Ind AS 115 (or IFRS 15) provides 5 step revenue recognition model: New standard streamline the process of recognition of revenue and ensures the consistent approach of recognition across industries. An entity shall allocate transaction price to each separate performance obligation within that contract on a relative stand-alone selling price basis. Ind AS-115 superseded the Ind AS-11 (Construction Contracts) & Ind AS-18 (Revenue). Ind AS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates: 23. Our Goods & Services Tax course includes tutorial videos, guides and expert assistance to help you in mastering Goods and Services Tax. Using the percentage of completion method also provides useful information on the extent of service activity and the performance during the period. Entities may agree to provide goods or services for consideration that varies upon certain future events which may or may not occur. is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged or the liability settled between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction. Amount of consideration may include a variable component like discount, rebates, credits, refunds, price concessions, incentives and similar items. Our GST Software helps CAs, tax experts & business to manage returns & invoices in an easy manner. Save taxes with ClearTax by investing in tax saving mutual funds (ELSS) online. ClearTax can also help you in getting your business registered for Goods & Services Tax Law. In the earlier post, we saw various differences between the Accounting Standards / Ind AS and GST Law. To estimate the transaction price in a contract that includes variable consideration, entity may use any of two methods: An entity should use one method consistently to estimate the transaction price throughout the life of a contract. Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits: 21. Ind AS 17 Leases: 19. Thus, income comprises both revenue and gains. The treatment and effect on revenue of the following incentives are discussed here from AS and Ind AS perspective: 1. Performance Obligation is generally specified in contract, but could also include promises implied by entity's customary business practices, published policies or specific statement that create a valid customer expectation. I. the entity's performance and the customer's payment. Where the collections from customers are deferred the revenue will be lower than the contract price, and interestingly in case of advance collections, the effect will be opposite resulting is revenue exceeding the contract price with the difference accounted as a finance expense. Stand-alone selling price is price at which entity would sell a promised good or service separately to a customer. View Revenue Recognition Ind AS - 18.pptx from AC MISC at Indian Institute of Management Raipur. However, this standard would not apply to: i) Lease Contracts (Ind AS-17) The Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015. Ind AS 115 provides following guidance in respect of recognition of contract costs: ï¿½ Incremental cost of obtaining contract with a customer: Entity should recognize as an asset if it expects to recover those costs. II. From the financial year 2018-19, the other two standards IND AS 18 and 11, which are related to revenue … The core principle of Ind AS 115 is that revenue needs to be Allocating discounts & Variable Considerations. As per the AS 9 Revenue Recognition issued by ICAI “Revenue is the gross inflow of cash, receivables or other consideration arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an enterprise from the sale of goods, rendering of services & from various other sources like interest, royalties & dividends”. But importantly entities will have to closely analyze their business practices within the revenue cycle including changes to customer contracts, IT systems, tax implications, the introduction of new processes or controls, changes to management KPIs, disclosures and broader stakeholder communication. Fair Value (FV) is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged or the liability set… II. There is no probable inflow of economic benefits. on 01 September 2018. 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