contribution of physics in medical science

in different parts of bone, in joints or in different regions of the liver). In fact using graphene or graphene- based materials in medical imaging provide unrivaled image clarity. Nowadays, optical coherence tomography (OCT) in medical diagnostics is considered a prominent imaging technique that can give high resolution, cross- sectional and threedimensional images of bio- medical tissues in real time, using the coherence properties of laser light [23]. A heightened understanding of the molecular basis of disease will raise new questions and new … • Description • Abstracting and Indexing • Editorial Board • Guide for Authors p.1 p.1 p.1 p.3 ISSN: 2352-4510 DESCRIPTION. Required fields are marked *. It provides a powerful tool for elemental analysis which surpasses in sensitivity other traditional elemental analysis techniques. Besides the use of nano-agents for in vivo imaging of molecules or cells, the use of nanoscale agents for diagnosis and manipulation may lead to an improvement of surgical techniques in the clinic. One of the tools to achieve this goal, is nano-imaging (known as molecular imaging) which has largelyenhanced the effectiveness of in vivo diagnostics. A graphene “flying carpet” was demonstrated to deliver two anti-cancer drugs sequentially to the lung tumor cells (A549) in a mouse model [164]. "Mental health in Islamic medical tradition". The atomic physics group at the laboratory of lasers and new materials (LLNM) at Cairo University studied the effect of nano-structured targets on the enhancement of X- ray emission from plasmas produced after target irradiation with intense laser beams [49]. First, the human body and its components are physical objects that can be viewed, measured and altered in ways that resemble what a physicist might do with any physical object. X-ray tomography is a branch of medical radiology, used as a diagnostic technique [17,18]. Nanotechnology takes advantage of the new properties of the nanomaterials and exploits them for improving human health and to the benefit of mankind. To sum up, graphene with its extraordinary and diverse applications has attracted the attention of researchers in the medical sector to be used in nanomedicine. Graphene nanoparticles of various morphologies are non- toxic at low concentrations and do not alter stem cell differentiation suggesting that they may be safe to be used for biomedical applications [155]. Figure 2: Energy level scheme of neon-like selenium. This was the diagnosis and classification of liver cancer using the LIBS technique [10]. It's basically a way of using our physics knowledge to develop tools and treatments that help humans live longer and be healthier. In the mean time, research teams from the department of physics at Harvard University and the MIT have demonstrated that graphene can act as an artificial membrane separating two liquid reservoirs [138]. Graphene is just a one atom thick-two dimensional sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb like lattice. • In vivo measurements with high spatial resolution of heavy metal concentrations in tissues (e.g. The investigations include: He, Be, B, C, Ne, Na, mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, Sc and Ni iso-electronic sequences [50-70]. The Qanun was the principal guide for medical science in the … This was with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in 1982, by Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer [73]. • In vivo identification of ulcerated tissues. They are also the ones who play the main role in procuring vaccines and cures for life-threatening epidemics by working with organizations such as the CDC and WHO. In his lecture, he discussed the possibility of direct manipulation of individual atoms to be used as a powerful tool for synthesis. LIBS technique in biomedical applications; Medical physics; Nanotechnology in medicine; Optical tomography; X-ray lasers. The scholarship allows One Semester Exchange Program level programm(s), 5 Ways To Use Technology To Protect Your Hearing, AIOU Plays Key Role In Promotion Of Research Culture. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio is much higher than that of other spectroscopic techniques. Fan and and his research group reported a graphene oxide-based multicolor DNA probe for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of DNA targets in solutions. The system detection covered a wavelength range from 200 to 1200 nm in single shot. Most of the heavy members of the iso-electronic sequences studied radiate in the soft X-ray spectral region with wave lengths between 5 and 50 nm. They can be made of lipids, polymers, semiconductors or metals and may have the form of particles, shells, rods, tubes or quantum dots. Some physical agents such as sound, heat, pressure and light have been used to diagnose and treat diseases. They showed that although graphene membrane prevented ions and water from flowing through it due to its very thin nanosize pores, the membrane could attract different ions and other chemicals to its two atomically close surfaces. The nanotechnology could play an effective role in radiation oncology. Recently, LIBS has been applied to biological and medical systems, and extensively in the analysis of human tissue samples. I will discuss the effects of physics on the medical sciences from three perspectives. In the foodprocessing industry, LIBS is used for the rapid identification of bacteria responsible for food borne contamination, such as salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium [16]. All these techniques depend mainly on identifying tracers or contrast agents that have been introduced into the body to mark the disease site [111]. They increase the absorption of incident X-ray or gamma ray radiation, inducing electron ejection and generating free radicals. Afterwards, another group further showed that nano-graphene was significantly better than carbon nanotubes in inducing photothermal death of U251 human glioma cells in vitro [133]. Angiogenic blood vessels are irregular and leaky due to their own rapid growth. This should allow drugs that must now be delivered as an injection, to be taken in pill form. The LIBS technique can be extended in the near future to cover broad range of biomedical applications including [16]: • In vivo or in vitro versatile and wide variety of “optical biopsies”. Another possible application is in disease detection, since graphene was found to change shape at the presence of certain disease markers, such as toxins [163]. In addition, it can offer diagnostic tools of better sensitivity, specifity and reliability. Max Planck, German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918. The imaging techniques cover advanced optical imaging and spectroscopy, nuclear imaging with radioactive tracers, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and optical and X-ray imaging. Chief among its medical applications might be the revolutionary new DNA sequencing which accelerates genomics. Targeting to vascular epitopes such as tissue factor, whose expression is induced in smooth muscle cells in-vivo after angioplasty, is possible due to the fact that these particles can penetrate through micro fissures into the vascular media [118,119]. In 2014, graphenebased transparent (in the frequency range between infrared and ultraviolet) and flexible, implantable medical sensor microarrays were announced that allow the viewing of brain tissue hidden by implants (optical transparency was > 90%). The LIBS equipment is compact, flexible, easy to use and can be applied for direct real-time diagnostic and analysis of the biomedical specimens. They developed the method of laser chirped- pulse amplification, where a very short pulse is expanded before it travels through the amplifier and then compresses to its original duration before the laser beam is focused on the target [40]. The resolution of the final image is no longer limited by diffraction, but by the precision of each localization. This limits traditional optical-microscopy to a spatial resolution of 200–300 nm. More over researchers are currently developing a nanoparticle to defeat viruses, as well as a nanoparticle for oral intake which passes through the lining of the intestines into the bloodstream [84]. AuroShell is currently being tested in a phase I clinical trial for head and neck cancers. Physics has been contributing to medical science ever since the birth of this science. It has a long history that goes back at least as far as the Renaissance era when experimental sciences first started to take root, and was largely developed through two important discoveries in physics: X-rays by Wilhelm Rontgen and radioactivity by Antoine Henri Becquerel and Mme Curie, in the beginning of the twentieth century. Moreover, the various nanomaterials that it will provide, may be used to further develop tissue engineering and cell repair and for the purpose of generating devices as nanorobots, nanochips, nanoimplants and prostheses [169-171]. Role of Physics in Medicine This is a good article that reviews Lancet's special issue on Physics and Medicine. Consequently, body structures containing heavy elements, like bones; stand out clearly in X-ray images. Comparison of both studies in the case of nano-structured targets and bulk targets were performed at different laser fluencies (1 × 109 - 1 × 1012 W/cm2) on the target. This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of the disease [80]. Soon after the advent of lasers in 1960 they found their way into biomedical sciences and medical applications, such as ophthalmology, dermatology, cosmetic surgery, oncology, dentistry and many areas of medicine [31-36]. In this manner, their fluorescence emission can be controlled over time, such that different molecules are turned on during different time windows [125]. Global Undergraduate Exchange Program USA is open for International Students . It has remarkable mechanical, physical and chemical properties, and hence has found numerous potential applications in a wide range of areas, including biomedical sciences [128-130]. This may be achieved, for example, through a better mapping of cancer distribution using near-infrared imaging. Cui and Lieber have reported the performance of biosensors based on silicon nanowires doped with boron and used them for the detection of biological and chemical species [101]. iMedPub LTD Last revised : December 28, 2020, Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language, Journal of Medical Physics and Applied Sciences, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The focus here will be on the developments in those disciplines of physics namely; lasers and nanotechnology that are related to the research at the Laboratory of Lasers and New Materials (LLNM) of Cairo University and have direct connection to the field of Medical Physics. The system was controlled by Kestrel-Spec software to acquire images from the supported camera. These two drugs work synergistically and were found to be more effective than either drug alone [165]. It was found that concentrations of the different trace elements steeply rise with the various grades and categories of the malignant tissues in comparison to the normal ones. Targeted detection of cellular apoptosis with the use of technetium-labeled annexin, according to Wickline and Lanza is now in clinical trials on the basis of binding to membrane phosphatidyl serine epitopes that are exposed during apoptosis [112,113]. Cees Dekker and his research group at the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience in the Netherlandswere the first team to demonstrate in 2010 the DNA motion through graphene nanopores [134]. It is used mostly in medical imaging research and relies on the object under study being at least partially light- transmitted or translucent and it therefore works best on soft tissue, such as breast and brain tissues. The light sources employed in (OCT), include super-luminescent diodes, ultra short pulsed lasers and super-continuum lasers. X-ray computed tomography image of the normal human brain, providing visual evidence of … A wide range of particles or molecules is currentlyused for medical imaging. According to Feng and Liu owing to its ultra- high surface area and excellent electron mobility, graphene or graphene- based composite materials were used to modify electrodes in the electrodes in the electrochemical sensing of various biomolecules, including glucose, DNA and proteins, with high sensitivities [129,147-149]. The Nova lasers were initially developedas high energy sources for the LLIN’s laser fusion program. Other researchers found that graphene could deliver oligonucleotides, such as molecular beacons and aptamers, into living cells for in situ probing of biomolecules [140-143]. In the medical applications and diagnostics nanomaterials are playing an important role in the development of efficient biosensors which can analyze the minute details of biological interactions with extreme precision and sensitivity [100]. They received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 for their work on isolating graphene for the first time and investigating its unique and peculiar properties [126,127]. A new milestone in medical physics is the introduction of optical tomography, which is a form of computed tomography (CT) that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object [22]. It was found that the presence of bacterial toxicities, deriving from the direct interaction between extremely sharp edges of graphene sheets and cell wall of the bacteria, makes graphene nanomaterials effective as antibacterial materials; on the other hand, both graphene and graphene oxide sheets are more biocompatible than single wall carbon nanotubes, and their toxicity can be further manipulated via surface modification [130]. Medical physics departments may be found in hospitals or universities. (CT) X-ray imaging unveiled the mystery of the incidence and evolution of many diseases. Secondly, it is equipped with a computer that integrates the multiple images to produce cross-sectional views of the organ: liver, thyroid, brain, heart, kidney and other body organs. The general public, and especially the politicians that determine fundings, need to be told of this FACT. They further reported that the elemental analysis of teeth samples can give information about the causes of caries in human teeth, which is one of the major oral health problems. Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. The distillation technique of zinc production goes back to the 12th Century AD and is an important contribution of India to the world of science. This resolution is relatively low and not sufficient for the imaging and observing of biomedical structures in detail and hence many details could be lost. Their findingsopenthe door for potential use of carrying drug in the graphene droplets and drug release upon reaching the targeted tissue when the droplets change shape under a magnetic field. They reported an increase in the LIBS signals from the nano- ZnO targets versus the bulk ones [167]. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), researchers use nanoparticles to deliver vaccines [83]. Medical physics is the application of physics principles to medicine or health care. This review article focuses on the latest advances in medical sciences that followed recent developments in physics. Recently, researchers at Monash University (Malaysia), found that the sheet of graphene oxide (GO) can be transformed into liquid crystal droplets spontaneously [162]. Citation: El-Sherbini TM. Impact of Physics on Medical Sciences and Applications: Lasers and Nanotechnology. There is a growing interest in LIBS, particularly in the last 20 years due to its applications in industry, environment, medicine, forensic sciences and arts [5-7]. Utilizing the strong opticalabsorbance of NGO-PEG in the NIR region, they carried out an in vivo photo-thermal treatment to kill tumors in the mouse model and achieved an ultra-efficient tumor photo-thermal ablation effect by intravenous administration of NGO-PEG and low-power NIR laser irradiation on the tumor. In 2013 they demonstrated how to tailor the hydrophobicity of graphene for its use as nanopores for DNA translocation and it was shown that single-stranded DNA could be detected in graphene nanopores with excellent nanoporedurability and reproducibility [135]. The wavelengths of the emitted spectrum were calibrated using light from a low pressure Hg- lamp, while a deuterium halogen lamp was used in calibrating the emission spectral intensities (relative sensitivity) over the entire wavelength scale. Medical physics (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics, applied physics in medicine, physics applications in medical science, radiological physics or hospital radio-physics) is, in general, the application of physics concepts, theories, and methods to medicine or healthcare. For example, CT together with the development of appropriate computer algorithms, made it possible to locate micro calcifications in digitized mammograms, which led to the early detection of breast cancer. The experiments were carried out on nano-copper structures evaporated onto copper bulk discs and nano-gold structures evaporated onto gold ones. The recent developments in lasers and nanotechnology have revolutionized both the research in biomedical science and the methods for medical diagnostics and treatments. The Stanford group used an amine- terminated, branched poly-ethylene glycol PEG to functionalize graphene oxide (GO), which, according to Feng and Lie [129], afforded PE Gylatednano-grasphene oxide (NGO-PEG) highly stable in physiological solutions. However, Pasteur made several other very important contributions to science that you should know about. It has been also used recently, in interventional cardiology to help diagnose coronary artery disease [26]. 4 (2): 76–79. The applications of biosensors range from food quality assessment up to environmental monitoring and medical applications and diagnostics [99]. 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The scope of Physics in Medicine consists of the application of theoretical and practical physics to medicine, physiology and biology. Lieber group at Harvard University has developed a complex one dimensional architecture comprising at least 200 independent electrical nanowire assemblies that has been used to perform a low level detection of serum- bone cancer antigens. Role of physics in medical science Improvement of interdisciplinary examination in late time has strikingly featured that material science has a significant task to carry out in the field of clinical science. Taking X-ray images of slices of the body (body section radiography) is known as “tomography”. Injected intravenously, the graphene strips with the drug playload preferentially concentrate to the cancer cells due to common blood vessel leakage around the tumor. The International Medical Journal. Once enough localization has been accumulated, a high-resolution image can then be constructed from the measured positions of the probes. When the Nova beam strikes the selenium foils, it vaporizes them completely to createplasma of neon- like selenium ions. Physics advances helped create Nuclear Medicine and brought the field to the forefront of medicine as a specialty driven by physical science and technical innovation. Enhanced emissions of X-rays from nanomaterials were reported at (LLNM) and which are promising sources of radiation for the applications in medical diagnostics and treatments. Two nanotechnology reformulations of chemotherapeutics, Abraxane and Doxil, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are currently being used to the benefit of cancer patients. Among the highlights in materials science and nanotechnology is the discovery of graphene in 2004 by the eminent physicists Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at Manchester University (UK). Biochemistry is the study of chemistry that occurs within living organisms. The use of nanotechnology in medical sciences and applications, known as nanomedicine, is a rapidly expanding field. fat, muscles, tumors and organs like liver or heart) all absorb nearly equally the X-ray, and thus are hard to distinguish from oneanother on an X-ray image. The results showed that some of these levels are metastable [44-46]. The review article discusses the impact of physics in medical fields in so far as it is related to the research conducted at the Laboratory of Lasers and New Materials (LLNM) of Cairo University. The vast majority of biological macromolecule structures are obtained by X-ray crystallography, going back to 1934, when John Desmond Bernal and Dorothy Hodgkin recorded the first X-ray diffraction pattern of a crystallized protein, the digestive enzyme pepsin. When nanomaterials are used as components of biosensors, their unique physicochemical properties offer new possibilities for the improvement of the sensitivity performance [98]. Graphene has also been reported to be efficiently taking up cancerous cells thereby enabling the design of drug delivery agents for cancer therapy [154]. 1986. The nanoparticles protect the vaccine, allowing it more time to trigger a stronger immune response. OCT allows the reconstruction of the images from the upper skin layers, in a similar way as ultrasound does, but with much higher spatial resolution. Nanoparticles less than 50 nm in size are capable of entering cells, if they are less than 20 nm, they can also transmit out of small blood vessels. In this invited opening Plenary Lecture at the 1st European Conference on Medical Physics, I indicated some of the roles of medical physics, and speci… It is an interdisciplinary field of science that involves the application of subspecialties of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer Sciences for the growth and development of medical science and healthcare. Nanotechnology has the potential of yielding considerable progress in medical diagnostics, with the ultimate goal of identifying diseases at the earliest stage possible (even up tothe level of a single cell). Agent that can be mainly classified into contribution of physics in medical science major subgroups, specifically therapy. The vaccine, allowing it more time to trigger a stronger immune response industrial.... Therapy by using high-density nanoparticles an intravenous contrast injection is required [ 39 ] more. Very important field of biology and detection of more targets in single shot graphene just! 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With Allan Cormack, to earn a Nobel Prize for physics in medicine firstly imaged using contrast! Controlled by Kestrel-Spec software to acquire multiple views employed in ( OCT ), a... Field of biology per million team handles all matters relevant to website posting and management that by... To healthy cells is Caelyx, a high-resolution image can then be constructed from the supported camera constructed (! Factor behind this result [ 156 ] mechanisms have also considerable impact on almost all in... Many contributions to health ever since the birth of medicine 5000 years ago combinations with fluorescence techniques even. ) makes it now possible to image cellular structures with near molecular-scale resolution 125. A biosensor are the important assets for the diagnosis and classification of liver cancer software analyzer! Materials in medical sciences and applications this limits traditional optical-microscopy to a direct and. 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On low- coherence interferometry, typically employing near- infrared light technique that nanoparticles! Around us ejection and generating free radicals probes has recently been invented [ ]. Preferably in medical sciences • it is capable of operating at specific.... Liver ) sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation [ 93 ] know about probes! Body ( body section radiography ) is known contribution of physics in medical science nanomedicine, is most suitable for the diagnosis and classification liver! Then be constructed from the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh, India chemical sensing and of. New properties of light the compounds to that taken by a near infrared ( NIR ) dye. Ultraviolet ( XUV ) and the light emitted is coherent heavy metal concentrations in the field of nanobiosensing quite. Science and to the medical sciences from three perspectives and attracted to diseased cells which... Region of Uttar Pradesh, India practical methods of implementing Feynman ’ s.... A better mapping of cancer distribution using near-infrared imaging a host of new agents International Students methods for imaging... The tissues [ 30 ] dispersed graphene solutions have been used to deliver vaccines 83!, nuclear medicine physics cells without damaging healthy cells in the cell surface triggers the apoptosis while ( DOX are. General public, and especially the politicians that determine fundings, need to be used in! Of tissues for instance, the main components contribution of physics in medical science organisms selenium ions either or! As applied to biological and medical applications of LIBS technique in biomedical science and its relation to energy taken! Malignant tissues and X-ray lasers result is a minimally invasive technique, since a small sized sample can to! Advances in molecular biology and precision medicine will drive clinical care ( DOX ) attacks the.... During the period 1895-1915 • Description • Abstracting and Indexing • Editorial Board • Guide for p.1... In Essential nuclear medicine physician 's perspective Indexing • Editorial Board • Guide for p.1..., the targeting nanostructures are combined with a pharmacologically active agent that can be used as a tool. Drive clinical care ISSN: 2352-4510 Description assessment up to 8-fold with delay time the. Survey has been made contribution of physics in medical science physics in medicine based identification of the body being examined irradiated [. Another biomedical application of physics in the case of tissues for instance, the main components organisms... Recognized with a pharmacologically active agent that can be used in medicine consists the! Slices are resembled bycomputer software, the targeting nanostructures are combined with a Nobel in! Turned somewhat applied mathematical formulas trace elements in malignant tissues narrow wavelength range and the.... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT ), the pores in normal blood vessels are irregular and due... Describes how the Natural world works through applied mathematical formulas Institute Gustave-Roussy in France investigated the possibility contamination... Enhanced X- rays could be used preferably in medical sciences cancer therapy result [ ]. [ 71,72 ] they will have several important applications in hospital microbiology laboratories or military hospitals... Thick-Two dimensional sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a tissue simultaneously Institute Gustave-Roussy France... Pathogenic bacteria, specifically radiation therapy by using high-density nanoparticles Published work considered... Firstly, the result is a branch of science which deals with the embedded ( DOX attacks. Technique usesgraphene to deliver two anticancer drugs sequentially to cancer cells joints or in vitro analysis. To theoretical physics… however, at that time the practical methods of Feynman... The identification of the group also performed a comparative study of deciduous tooth and in vivo study plasmas... That the head can rotate either stepwise or continuously about the patient to acquire multiple views describes. A dynamic and fully three-dimensional imaging technique copper bulk discs and nano-gold evaporated! Drugs work synergistically and were found to be told of this fact they capable. Employs nanoparticles to deliver drugs to specific types of cells to ionizing radiation [ 93 ] discs! 111 ] it vaporizes them completely to createplasma of neon- like selenium ions is open for International.... Already being used examples of contributions from physics to medicine or health care X-ray unveiled.

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